Posts Tagged ‘artifacts’

 

Though I was unaware of the Rosicrucian’s odd spiritual beliefs prior to visiting their Egyptian museum inSan Jose, they do have a very interesting museum boasting the largest collection of Egyptian artifacts on the west coast.

There were a few artifacts on display that actually support the fact that the Bible is a trustworthy source of historical information. Pictured in this post are artifacts related to characters and locations noted in the Bible.

This is a cast mold of the original huge stele of Assyrian King Esarhaddon. The Bible records King Esarhaddon multiple times; 2 Kings 19:37, Ezra 4:2, and Isaiah 37:38.

 

This cuneiform cylinder is also from King Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar is mentioned in the Biblical books of 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel.

 

This sculpture came from the ancient city of Nineveh. The city of Nineveh is mentioned over 25 times in the Bible, and proves to be one of many historical locations mentioned in the Bible. For example; Genesis 10:11, 2 Kings 19:36, Jonah 1:2, Nahum 1:8, Matthew 12:41, etc.

 
The largest cuneiform cylinder in this shot comes from the city of Ur. The city of Ur is mentioned in the Bible three times; Genesis 11:28, 11:31, & 15:7.

This is a cast of Assyrian King Sargon. Sargon is mentioned in Isaiah 20:1

If the stories in the Bible were of real people and places, then shouldn’t there be archaeological evidence? Here are some great examples of archaeological discoveries of places or persons that are mentioned in the Bible that support the authenticity of the Bible:

 

Genesis 10:10- The City of Babylon

   

Genesis 10:11- The City of Nineveh

   

Genesis 10:14- The Philistines

The existence of the Philistines in the bible was once doubted. Today there have been 28 sites and 5 major Philistine cities discovered in Palestine.

 Genesis 10:15- The Hittite Culture

It was once believed that the Hittite culture was not in existence during the time of Abraham as the bible mentions. But recently, evidence of an early Hittite culture has been uncovered with so many artifacts, that an entire museum has been dedicated to it in Israel.

Genesis 10:19- “Canaan”

The OT’s reference of “Canaan” was once considered in error. It was believed that name was not used as early as the OT suggests. The discovery of the Ebla archive in northern Syria in the 1970s revealed the land of Canaan was named as such during the time the OT suggests.

Genesis 11:8-10- The Tower of Babel

Ziggurats are high brick towers with shrines on the top. Many of these have been found near Babylon. However one clay tablet in the area has an inscription that speaks of a temple that so “offended the Gods” that it was destroyed in one night, and the people scattered with their “speech made strange.” Fragments of an Assyrian tablet were discovered at Nineveh by Austen Henry Layard during the middle of the 18th century that closely parallel the Biblical account. The artifacts now reside in the British Museum (registration number K.3657) and reads as follows: “his heart was evil against the father of all the gods . . . Babylon was brought into subjection, small and great alike. He confounded their speech . . . their strong palace (tower) all the days they built; to their strong place in the night He completely made an end . . . In His anger His word was poured out . . . to scatter aboard He set his face, He gave this command, and their counsel was confused. . .He saw them and the earth. . . of stopping not . . . Bitterly they wept at Babi(l). . very much they grieved . . at their misfortune.”

Genesis 11:28- The City of Ur

 

Genesis 19:24- Sodom and Gomorrah

The ruins of both cities have been discovered. Although archeologists say they don’t know exactly what caused their destruction, the ruins show evidence of fire damage. The Bible says God destroyed them with fire from the sky.

   

 

Genesis 24:10- Domesticated Camels

It was believed that there were no domesticated camels during the time of Abraham as the bible states. Archeologists later found paintings of domesticated camels on the walls of the temple of Hatshepsut, which dated back to Abraham’s period.

Genesis 41:41-44- Joseph’s Egyptian Seal

The Bible says Joseph (son of Jacob) was given the seal of Pharaoh. Numerous Scarab Seals have been unearthed dating to the 18th century BC that say “son of Yaqub” (Egyptian for Jacob, who was Joseph’s father). In the Egyptian ruins of Avaris, nine seals were found with the same inscription of Jacob, which is not an Egyptian name, but a Hebrew one.

Genesis 46:26-27- Israelites move to Egypt

At the Tomb of Ben Hassan there is large picture showing a mass migration into Egypt inside. The people in the picture have beards and are wearing brightly colored and patterned clothing, all of which was the typical traditional style at the time for Israelites, but not of Egyptians. But more importantly, a hieroglyphic says the people are “Ammo” which translated means, “God’s People” (singular)[1]. The tomb is dated to the 18-17th century which is the same period of time that the Israelites migrated to Egypt per the Bible’s account.

   

Exodus 3:20- God’s Wrath against Egypt

Fragments of the Ahmose Stele (AKA Tempest Stele) speaks of great destruction to the land of Egypt from the wrath of God (singular). Which is particular interesting because Egyptians believe in multiple Gods, not one God, in which the Israelites did. The stele is dated to the 15th Century BC, during the same time the Exodus occurred. Of the devastation, hail is mentioned, which Exodus 9:18 states, “I will send a hailstorm more devastating than any in all the history of Egypt.” (NLT)

Exodus 11:5- Death of firstborn males.

Dated to the same time of the Exodus, have been found multiple gravesites in Egypt containing the bones of mostly young men in mass burial. Even the son of Pharaoh Ahmose,[2] died at a very young age of 12, his tomb kept in the Cairo museum.

Exodus 14:27- Egyptians chase Israelites into the parted sea.

The 3-piece Grave Stele of Mycenae actually shows Egyptians on chariots chasing unarmed people into a parted body of water, with the people emerging on high ground and the Egyptians being drowned in the last stele.

Numbers 22:1- City of Jericho

   

 

The Book of Joshua- Joshua’s Conquests

 The Amarna Tablets were written by the Kings of Palestine and Syria to the kings of Egypt. The letters discussed the conquering and military success of Joshua.

Joshua 11:1- City of Hazor

Joshua 16:3- City of Gezer

   

Judges 17:7- City of Bethlehem

1 Samuel 5:2- The Temple of Dagon

1 Samuel 16:1- King David

David was thought to be a myth until 1993 when a stone monument fragment was found in Tel Dan, near Israel and Syria. This fragment mentions King David and the “House of David.”

   

2 Samuel 2:12-32 – Pool of Gibeon

   

1 Kings 4:28- Solomon’s Horse Stables in Maggido

   

1 Kings 14:25-26- King Shisak of Egypt

1 Kings 16:16- King Omri

The Meesha Stele dated to 846 BC records the revolt of Meesha (Moab’s King), Yahweh (the Hebrew name of God), and King Omri, a king of Israel!

2 Kings 9:1-10- King Jehu of Israel

2 Kings 19:37- King Esarhaddon of Assyria

2 Kings 24:12- King Jehoiachin captured.

The Ration Tablet from Babylon describes the exile of King Jehoiachin to Babylon.

1 Chronicles 36:22- Cyrus allows exile’s return.

The bible prophesized many things, one of which was that a man named “Cyrus” would be responsible for the Jewish return from exile. The Cyrus Cylinder found in Babylon recorded this proclamation as well as other prophesies from the Bible.

   

Book of Esther- King Xerxes I of Persia

Ezra 4:24- King Darius I of Persia

Daniel 1:1-7, Israelites Deported to Babylon

There where three separate phases to the exile of Israel to Babylon. The first phase (605 B.C.- Daniel deported) is confirmed by the “Babylon Chronicle,” found in the court records of Babylon.

Daniel 5:1-3- King Belshazzar

King Nabonidus of Babylonia left a magnificent cuneiform cylinder (wedge-shaped letters inscribed on a clay cylinder) mentioning his elder son, Belshazzar by name. Critics of the Bible had claimed for many years that the account in the book of Daniel was wrong; they said Belshazzar was never a king in Babylon and that Nabonidus was not his father. The discovery of this cylinder clearly showed that these scholars were dead wrong.

Isaiah 20:1- King Sargon of Assyria

   

Isaiah 23:1-17- Destruction of Tyre

The bible prophesized the double destruction of the city of Tyre which archeologists found records of it being destroyed twice. First (and impartially) in 586 B.C. and second in 330 B.C.

   

 

Jeremiah 39:3- Nabu-sharrussu-ukin the Chief Preist

Nabu-sharrussu-ukin was identified on a Babylonian clay tablet as a Chief Priest. He is also mentioned in Jeremiah 39:3. The tablet is dated to 595 BC.

Book of Ezekiel- Ezekiel the Prophet

Stone tablets have been discovered containing the entire book of Ezekiel. The tablets have been dated to 600 to 500 B.C.  Which was during the time of Ezekiel, with that, some speculate the he himself may have chiseled some of the tablets. 

Ezekiel 1:3, Israelites Deported to Babylon again

The second phase of deportation (597 B.C.- Ezekiel captured) is mentioned in the “Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings.” 10 years later when Jerusalem was destroyed is recorded in the “Lachish Letters.”

   

Matthew 2:23- The City of Nazareth

   

Matthew 4:13- The City of Capernaum

   

Matthew 21:17- The City of Bethany

Matthew 22:17- Roman Emperor Tiberius

Matthew 26:3- Caiaphas the High Priest

In the Peace Forest section of Jerusalem was discovered a burial cave containing twelve ossuaries, one of them being none other than that of Caiaphas, the high priest who presided at the trial of Jesus.

Matthew 27:50-51- Earthquake after Jesus dies

Phlegon of Tralles, a non-Christian Greek writer (AD 80-140) wrote of Jesus being crucified and great earthquakes taking place.

Mark 15:12-13- King of Jews crucified by Jews

Syrian historian Mara-Bar Serapion (non-Christian) wrote of Jews executing their “wise king,” in A.D. 70.

Mark 15:1- Pontius Pilate and Tiberieum  

Pilate himself was long thought of as a fictional character that never existed. That is until the discovery of the Pilate dedication limestone found in 1961. An inscription on the stone mentions both Pilate and Tiberieum (who ruled Rome at the time). Testifying to Pilate indeed being a real person!

Mark 15:15- Jesus suffering under Pontius Pilate.

Cornelius Tacitus (non-Christian), the “greatest historian of Rome” A.D. 56-120, wrote of Jesus suffering under Pontius Pilate.

Luke 2:1- Roman Emperor Augustus

Luke 3:1- Lysanias, the Tetrarch

The bible says that Lysanias, the Tetrarch of Abilene ruled Syria and Palestine during the beginning of John the Baptist’s ministry in A.D. 27. But the only Lysanias known by historians and archeologists alike was one that was killed in 36 B.C. Since then, an inscription was found near Damascus refers to “Freedman of Lysanias of Tetrarch.” This inscription has been dated between A.D. 14 to A.D. 29.

Luke 7:11- The Village of Nain

 

Luke  23:33- Crucifixion of Jesus

Samaritan Historian Thallus (non-Christian) wrote of Jesus’ crucifixion in AD 52.

Luke 24:13- The Village of Emmaus

John 4:5- The Village of Sychar

John 5:36- Miracles of Jesus

Jewish historian Josephus wrote of Jesus as a real man who performed miracles in the 1st century.

John 9:1-4- The Pool of Siloam

John 19:13- The Roman Paved Platform/Court

The bible’s description of Jesus tried by Pilate on a paved court was proposed to be an error because no such ancient paved area had ever been found in Jerusalem. Unearthed later was the Tower of Antonia, an ancient Roman military headquarters in Jerusalem. At this site they found a paved court, the only one in Jerusalem (at the time). This leads archaeologists to believe it is the one Pilate tried Christ at.

Acts 11:28- Roman Emperor Claudius

Acts 12:1-23- King Herod Agrippa I of Judea

Acts 19:29- The Ampi-theater of Ephesus

“I know of no finding in archaeology that’s properly confirmed which is in opposition to the Scriptures. The Bible is the most accurate history textbook the world has ever seen.” Dr Clifford Wilson, formerly director of the Australian Institute of Archaeology.

 “The mantra that ‘archaeology disproves the Bible’ is simple to refute if only people would check out the evidence.” –Brian Edwards, Apologist.

“Through the wealth of data uncovered by historical and archaeological research, we are able to measure the Bible’s historical accuracy. In every case where its claims can thus be tested, the Bible proves to be accurate and reliable.” – Dr. Jack Cottrell, Professor of Theology

“In every instance where the findings of archaeology pertain to the Biblical record, the archaeological evidence confirms, sometimes in detailed fashion, the historical accuracy of Scripture. In those instances where the archaeological findings seem to be at variance with the Bible, the discrepancy lies with the archaeological evidence, i.e., improper interpretation, lack of evidence, etc. — not with the Bible.” – Dr. Bryant C. Wood, Archaeologist.

  “I have excavated for thirty years with a Bible in one hand and a trowel in the other, and in matters of historical perspective I have never found the Bible to be in error.” Professor Nelson Glueck, Director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem

“There can be no doubt that archaeology has confirmed the substantial historicity of Old Testament tradition.” – Dr. William F. Albright, premier archaeologist for Institute for Archaeological Research in Jerusalem

“It is therefore legitimate to say that, in respect of that part of the Old Testament against which the disintegrating criticism of the last half of the nineteenth century was chiefly directed, the evidence of archaeology has been to reestablish its authority and likewise to augment its value by rendering it more intelligible through a fuller knowledge of its background and setting. Archaeology has not yet said its last word, but the results already achieved confirm what faith would suggest – that the Bible can do nothing but gain from an increase in knowledge.” – Sir Frederic Kenyon, a former director of the British Museum.

“On the whole, however, archaeological work has unquestionably strengthened confidence in the reliability of the Scriptural record. More than one archaeologist has found his respect for the Bible increased by the experience of excavation in Palestine….Archaeology has in many cases refuted the views of modern critics. It has shown, in a number of instances, that these views rest on false assumptions and unreal, artificial schemes of historical development. This is a real contribution and not to be minimized.” – Millar Burrows, Professor of Archaeology at Yale University


[1] Keep in mind, Egyptians worshipped multiple Gods.

[2] Ahmose is the proposed Pharaoh of the Exodus.